ISSN 2398-2969      

Neonatal ophthalmia

icanis
Contributor(s):

Rhea Morgan

Synonym(s): Ophthalmitis neonatorum, neonatal conjunctivitis


Introduction

  • Inflammation and infection behind the closed eyelids of the newborn puppy.
  • Cause: oftenStaphylococcusspp.
  • Signs: periorbital swelling.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs, ophthalmic examination.
  • Treatment: opening of eyelids, antibiotics.
  • Prognosis: good if treated early.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Staphylococcusspp Streptococcus spp and other bacteria, some of which may be normal flora for the eye.

Predisposing factors

General
  • Poor environmental cleanliness may play a role.
  • Bacterial infections of the bitch may be the source of infection.

Specific

  • Delayed opening of the eyelids may contribute by allowing accumulation of mucus and other secretions.
  • May be related to urogenital infections in the bitch.

Pathophysiology

  • Normally the eyelids are closed (ankyloblepharon Ankyloblepharon ) in the puppy for 10-14 days.
  • It is believed that the bitch transmits a bacterial infection to the affected puppies at birth, or soon after birth.
  • How the bacteria gain entrance to the space between the eyelids and cornea is not well understood.
  • The bacteria multiply behind the closed eyelids, causing inflammation of the conjunctiva and cornea, and accumulation of purulent discharge.
  • The build up of discharge causes the eyelids to swell and protrude.
  • If the infection is not interrupted, corneal ulceration and perforation may occur, which threaten the globe and result in blindness.

Timecourse

  • Short duration over several days.

Epidemiology

  • One, several or all puppies within a litter may be affected.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

Other sources of information

  • Andrew S E (2002)diseases of the eyelids.In: Morgan R V, Bright R N, Swartout M S (eds)Handbook of Small Animal Practice.4th Ed. W B Saunders, Philadelphia, pp 929 - 942.
  • Severin G A (1995)Severin's Veterinary Ophthalmology Notes.3rd Ed. Fort Collins CO, p166.
  • Gelatt K N (1991)The canine eyelids.In: Gelatt K N (ed)Veterinary Ophthalmology.2nd Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 256-257.
  • Magrane W G (1971)diseases and Surgery of the Conjunctiva.In: Magrane W GCanine Ophthalmology.2nd Ed. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, pp 88-89.

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