ISSN 2398-2969      

Hypospadia

icanis
Contributor(s):

Daniel Smeak


Introduction

  • Rare.
  • Cause: embryological anomaly; failure of fusion of urethral or urogenital embryological folds.
  • Urethra opens ventrally and caudally at various sites from tip of penis to perineum.
  • Male: usually failure of preputial formation also.
  • Signs: urine soaking around urethral orifice, dermatitis.
  • Diagnosis: signs.
  • Treatment: reconstruction or urethrostomy.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Embryological anomaly: failure of fusion of urogenital folds.
  • Hypospadia has been associated with other congenital defects such as retained testicles.
  • Abnormalities of karyotype are possible.

Predisposing factors

General
  • None identified.
  • In man it is thought to occur due to inadequate androgen production from fetal testes.

Pathophysiology

  • Unknown but in man is thought to result from inadequate androgen production from the fetal testes.

Timecourse

  • Clinical signs appear early if:
    • The penis is exposed.
    • Urine scald dermatitis occurs.
    • Urinary tract infection is present.
  • Urinary tract infection may occur more frequently whenever the urethral orifice is ectopic.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Hayes H M et al (1986) Hospital incidence of hypospadias in dogs in North America. Vet Rec 118 (22), 605-607 PubMed.
  • Rawlings C A (1984) Correction of congenital defects of the urogenital system. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 14 (1), 49-60 PubMed.

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Urethrostomy

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