ISSN 2398-2969      

Eosinophilic bronchitis/pneumonia

icanis

Synonym(s): Allergic bronchitis


Introduction

  • Group of conditions involving significant eosinophil infiltration into lungs/airways.
  • Cause: migrating or lung parasites, type I hypersensitivity reactions.
  • Signs: severity and region of respiratory tract involved varies, but most animals cough.
  • Diagnosis: signs, history, hematology, radiography, bronchoscopy.
  • Treatment: anthelmintics, glucocorticoids.
  • Prognosis: most cases respond well to treatment.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Helminth parasites.
  • Inhaled allergens.
  • Bacterial/fungal allergens possible.
Causes of parasitic PIE

Pathophysiology

  • Migrating helminth parasites or type I immediate hypersensitivity reactions to various allergens → degranulating mast cells → eosinophil chemotactic factors → eosinophil migration into respiratory system → rhinitis, tracheitis, tracheobronchitis, bronchitis.
  • Severe infiltration → loss of functional lung tissue → looks like bronchopneumonia, interstitial pneumonia or pulmonary neoplasia.
  • Dirofilaria immitis → eosinophilic inflammation.
  • Angiostrongylus vasorum or Oslerus osleri (UK) → eosinophilic airway reaction.
  • Migrating ascarid larvae in young dogs → severe eosinophilic pneumonia.

Timecourse

  • Usually chronic.

Epidemiology

  • Depends on cause.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Clercx C et al (2000) Eosinophilic bronchopneumopathy in dogs. JVIM 14, 282-291 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Hawkins E C (1995) Diseases of the lower respiratory system. In: Textbook of Veterinary Internal Medicine. 4th edn. Eds S J Ettinger & E C Feldman. Philadelphia: W B Saunders & Co. pp 767-811.

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