ISSN 2398-2969      

Determination of neutering status in the bitch and dog


Autumn P Davidson


  • To evaluate the need for neutering when the sterilization status of animal is unknown.
  • Also useful in the evaluation of ovarian remnant syndrome Ovarian remnant syndrome and cryptorchidism Testicle: cryptorchidism.
  • To reduce undesired and unintentional breeding Mesalliance.
  • Physical findings are only reliable when two scrotal testes are found or when obvious signs of estrus are present.
  • The amount of vaginal bleeding during proestrus and estrus in a bitch partially ovariohysterectomized is dependent on the amount of uterine tissue left behind, and can be misleadingly scant.
  • Behavioral signs can suggest the presence of a gonad in the dog (aggression, urine marking, interest in estrual bitches) and prompt further evaluation.
  • Cryptorchidism is inherited and common in many breeds. Monorchism is extremely rare.


This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to start a free trial to access all Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds and videos, or Login

Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Davidson A P & Baker T W (2009) Reproductive ultrasound of the bitch and queen. Top Companion Anim Med 24 (2), 55-63 PubMed.
  • Davidson A P & Baker T W (2009) Reproductive ultrasound of the dog and tom. Top Companion Anim Med 24 (2), 64-70 PubMed.

Related Images

Want more related items, why not
contact us

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!


To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field