ISSN 2398-2942      

Pseudorabies virus

icanis
Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

Synonym(s): Aujeszky's disease virus, porcine herpesvirus 1


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • Family: Herpesviridae.
  • Subfamily: Alphavirinae.
  • Genus: Varicellovirus.

Etymology

Active Forms

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to start a free trial to access all Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds and videos, or Login

Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • The principal reservoir is the pig.

Lifecycle

  • Replicates primarily in the upper respiratory epithelium including the tonsils.
  • Replication occurs in the cell nucleus - viral capsids (intranuclear inclusion bodies) are formed.

Transmission

  • Ingestion, inhalation or via pig bites. Rats may take virus from farm to farm.
  • Venereal transmission can occur in pigs.
  • No evidence of dog to dog spread.

Pathological effects

  • IgM antibodies first detectable about the 5th day.
  • IgG measurable by the 7th day and at maximum levels by 12th-14th day.
  • Virus replicates in the upper respiratory epithelium including the tonsils.
  • Infection may occur in the lower airway; may cause necrotizing tracheitis and pneumonia.
  • Can be found in the brain 24 hours after infection, therefore probably spreads via axoplasm.
  • Virus produces a non-suppurative meningoencephalomyelitis Granulomatous meningoencephalomyelitis with widespread damage to neurons.

In pigs

  • Produces a variable clinical picture.
  • Predominantly a nervous disease in young pigs; mortality 5-100%.
  • Severe nervous disease in adult pigs is rare. Presents vaguely with pyrexia, dullness and inco-ordination.
  • Respiratory disease may occur in pigs of all ages.
  • Infection in late pregnancy may cause abortion or stillbirth.

In cattle

  • Dominant sign is intense pruritus, resulting in licking, biting and abrasions.
  • Central nervous system (CNS) involvement causes bellowing and frenzy but not aggression.
  • Death occurs from respiratory or cardiac failure.

In dogs

  • See also pseudorabies Pseudo-rabies.
  • Fatal within 48 hours.
  • Intense pruritus.
  • Convulsions and cranial nerve palsies may occur.
  • Aggressive behavior occurs rarely.

In cats

  • Sluggishness is followed by excitement; mewing and paralysis of the limbs may occur.
  • Recovery rarely occurs.

Control

Control via animal

  • Avoid feeding pork to dogs in areas where enzootic in pigs.

Vaccination

  • Modified live vaccines available for pigs.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to start a free trial to access all Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds and videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Smith K C (1997) Herpesviral abortion in domestic animals. Vet J 153 (3), 253-268 PubMed.
  • Murdoch R S (1990) Aujeszky's disease in foxhounds. Vet Rec 126 (9), 226 PubMed.
  • Kelley D F & Ratcliffe J (1983) Canine Aujeszky's disease. Vet Rec 113 (18), 430 PubMed.
  • Shell L G, Ely R W & Crandell R A (1981) Pseudorabies in a dog. JAVMA 178 (11), 1159-1161 PubMed.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code