ISSN 2398-2942      

Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae

icanis
Contributor(s):

Richard Walker


Introduction

Classification

Taxonomy

  • GenusErysipelothrix.
  • SpeciesE. rhusiopathiae and E. tonsillarum are the only two species in the genus.

Etymology

  • Greek: erysipelas - erysipelas; thrix - hair; rhusios - red; pathos - disease.

Active Forms

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Clinical Effects

Epidemiology

Habitat

  • Widespread in the environment and has been isolated from over 50 species of mammals and 30 species of wild birds.
  • Can be isolated from apparently healthy pigs.
  • Saprophytic character in question.

Lifecycle

  • Found in gastrointestinal tract and lymphoid tissues of healthy animals.
  • Multiplication and pathogenesis depend on virulence of the strains and immunity of the host.

Transmission

  • Usually by ingestion.
  • Also through the skin via abrasions or bites.

Pathological effects

  • Partial immunity of the host and low virulence strains account for the localized skin form in pigs.
  • Chronic articular changes in joints of pigs due to damage caused by the immunological response to the presence of bacterial antigens in the synovial membrane.
  • Strains vary in virulence. The more virulent produce higher levels neuraminidase.
  • Pigs: acute septicemia, acute localized skin lesions (diamond skin disease), chronic vegetative endocarditis, chronic polyarthritis.
  • Birds: acute septicemia, chronic vegetative endocarditis and chronic arthritis.
  • Sheep: chronic polyarthritis in lambs via umbilicus or wounds. Post-dipping lameness.
  • Other animals: various infections.
  • Humans: erysipeloid, which is usually localized cutaneous form. May occasionally be generalized cutaneous form, involve adjacent joints, cause endocarditis or become septicemic.

Control

Control via chemotherapies

Vaccination

  • Bacterins used for vaccination of swine and turkeys.
  • Attenuated-live vaccines used in swine.

Diagnosis

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Takahashi T, Tamura Y, Yoshimura H et al (1993) Erysipelothrix tonsillarum isolated from dogs with endocarditis in Belgium. Res Vet Sci 54 (2), 264-265 PubMed.
  • Sisson D & Thomas W P (1984) Endocarditis of the aortic valve in the dog. JAVMA 184 (5), 570-577 PubMed.
  • Hoenig M & Gillette D M (1980) Endocarditis caused by Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae in a dog. JAVMA 176 (4), 326-327 PubMed.

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