ISSN 2398-2993      

Penile body deviations

obovis
Contributor(s):

Karin Mueller

Mike Reynolds

University of Liverpool logo

Synonym(s): Lateral deviation, Ventral deviation, Rainbow deviation, S-shape deviation


Introduction

  • Cause: the exact cause of penile body deviations remains debated. Localized fibrosis after an earlier trauma to penile tissue as well as a weakness in the dorsal apical ligament are two postulated etiologies.
  • Signs:
  • Diagnosis: close observation of the mating process is required to detect the abnormality. Intromission is disturbed.
  • Treatment: depending on suspected etiology, either shortening of the convex side or strengthening of the dorsal ligament have been described.
  • Prognosis: guarded – less than 1 in 4 bulls are likely to return to service.
For information on free end penile deviation see Free end penile deviation.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Two suggested etiologies are:
    • Previous trauma to the penis Penile surgery , with resulting fibrosis preventing full extension of the penis during erection on the affected side. Note: there rarely is a known history of trauma.
    • A weakness in the dorsal apical ligament. This hypothesis is based on surgical removal of the dorsal apical ligament resulting in the penis deviating ventrally. Concurrent changes in the tunica albuginea and blood flow through the ventral corpus cavernosum penis have been suggested.
  • For the S-shaped deviation, a mismatch between penile and dorsal apical ligament length has also been suggested.

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • Any weakness in the dorsal apical ligament may be inherent or acquired (tissue stretching or degeneration, trauma like lacerations, etc).

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wolfe D F (2018) Review: abnormalities of the bull – occurrence, diagnosis and treatment of abnormalities of the bull, including structural soundness. Theory Pract Intern Bull Fertil Conf 12 (1), 148-157 PubMed. DOI: 10.1017/S1751731118000939
  • Parmar S C (2016) Impotentia coeundi and impotentia generandi: a male infertility. Res J Sci Tech 8 (2), 113-121 PubMed. DOI: 10.5958/2349-2988.2016.00015.2

Other sources of information

  • Wolfe D F, Beckett S D & Carson R L (1999) Acquired Conditions of the Penis and Prepuce – Bulls, Rams, and Bucks. In: Large Animal Urogenital Surgery. 2nd edn. Eds: Wolfe D F & Moll H D. pp 237-272. Williams & Wilkins, USA.
  • Cox J E (1987) Ed The Bovine Penis and Prepuce. In: Surgery of the Reproductive Tract in Large Animals. 3rd edn. pp 87-116. Liverpool University Press, UK.

Organisation(s)

  • VisGAR (Visual Guides of Animal Reproduction; formerly the Drost Project). Male Reproductive System – Penis. Website: https://visgar.vetmed.ufl.edu.

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