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What's New on Vetlexicon - September 2022


Mitochondrial diseases

Mitochondrial brain diseases are caused by mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA (nDNA). Genetic tests are now available for some of these conditions in dogs. Written by Mark Lowrie MA MVM DipECVN VetMB MRCVS
Reviewed by Laurent Garosi DipECVN FRCVS


Porphyria syndromes

Porphyria syndromes arise from the accumulation of intermediate components of heme synthesis (porphyrins). Feline porphyria is extremely rare, but two types have been described. Written by Yvonne McGrotty BVMS CertSAM DipECVIM-CA MRCVS
Reviewed by Mayank Seth BSc(Hons) BVetMed(Hons) Dip-ECVIM-CA DACVIM(SAIM)


Adult aggression

Aggressive behaviours are hostile behaviours that often lead to injury. Some injuries may be severe, including large areas of skin defect, amputation of the ear pinna, amputation of a limb or even death.
  Updated by David Perpiñán DVM MSc PhD DipECZM


Roundworm infection

In guinea pigs, infection is caused by infections Paraspidodera uncinata (guinea pig roundworm). Roundworms found in dogs and cats can affect ferrets, eg Toxascaris leonina, Toxocara cati. Reptiles may be affected by oxyurids and ascarids.
  Written by Vicki Baldrey BVSc BSc(Hons) DZooMed(Avian) FHEA MRCVS
Reviewed by Sarah Pellett BSc(Hons) MA VetMB CertAVP(ZooMed) DZooMed(Reptilian) MRCVS


Chemotherapy complications

Chemotherapy complications may be life-threatening and require emergency treatment. Most toxic effects are reversible on discontinuation of treatment.
  Written by Anna Hollis BVetMed DipACVIM DipECEIM MSc(ClinOnc) MRCVS
Reviewed by Katie Snalune MA VetMB BSc CertEM(IntMed) CertES(Soft Tissue) MRCVS


Fluid therapy cheat sheet

This new ruminant fluid therapy cheat sheet is designed to be used in emergency field situations, where the veterinary surgeon does not have the option to run gold standard blood tests, etc. The ranges have been simplified to round figures to make calculations easier.

Provided by Meredyth Jones DVM MS DipACVIM
Reviewed by Paul Wood BVetMed MSc FHEA PGCert Vet Ed PGDipVetEd MRCVS

What's New on Vetlexicon - June 2022


Niemann Pick Disease

Niemann Pick disease (Sphingomyelinosis) is caused by a specific enzyme deficiency due to a genetic anomaly/mutation, and may occur as breed-specific inherited disease.

Written by Mark Lowrie MA MVM DipECVN VetMB MRCVS
Reviewed by Nicolas Granger DipECVN FHEA PhD FRCVS



Amantadine is used as an adjunctive analgesic in the management of chronic pain, including osteoarthritis pain. This new drug topic has been added to the Felis Anesthesia and Pharmacology & Therapeutics categories.

Written by Andrea Tarr B Pharm Msc MRPharmS
Reviewed by Jo Murrell BVSc(Hons) PhD DipECVAA MRCVS


Patellar luxation

Patellar luxation in rabbits is considered a developmental disease due to genetic and developmental changes that lead to malalignment of the quadriceps mechanism.

Written by David Perpiñán DVM MSc PhD DipECZM
Reviewed by Anna Meredith MA VetMB CertLAS DipECZM DZooMed(Mammalian) PhD FRCVS

Hypocalcemia in ferrets

Signs of hypocalcemia in ferrets can include weakness or collapse, muscle tremors, seizures, dystocia, lameness or limb deformity and ileus.

Written by Vicki Baldrey BVSc BSc(Hons) DZooMed(Avian) FHEA MRCVS
Reviewed by Anna Meredith MA VetMB CertLAS DipECZM DZooMed(Mammalian) PhD FRCVS

Body condition scoring in guinea pigs

Body condition scores (BCS) provide a subjective semi-quantitative method of evaluating body fat and lean body tissue in guinea pigs.

Written by Vicki Baldrey BVSc BSc(Hons) DZooMed(Avian) FHEA MRCVS
Reviewed by Sarah Pellett BSc(Hons) MA VetMB CertAVP(ZooMed) DZooMed(Reptilian) MRCVS

Dyspnea in reptiles

Causes of dyspnea in reptiles include disease of the upper and/or lower respiratory tract, and non-respiratory causes including pain, anxiety, fever, heat stroke, obesity, coelomic distension, cardiac disease, metabolic disorders, neuromuscular disease, and anemia.

Written by Jemma Hildrew BVSc GPcert(ExAP) CertAVP(ZM) MRCVS
Reviewed by Sarah Brown MA VetMB CertZooMed GPCert(ExAP) MRCVS



Azithromycin is a broad spectrum semisynthetic azalide antimicrobial primarily used in the treatment of Rhodococcus equi infections in foals.

  • Azithromycin

Written by Patricia Dowling DVM MSc DipACVIM(LAIM) DipACVCP
Reviewed by Scott Weese DVM DVSc DipACVIM



Burns are commonly caused by bush or grass fires, but also barn fires. Dehorning and disbudding can also be a causes of thermal injury.

Written by Ash Phipps BVSc(HonsI) GradCertVPH(EAD) MVS MVSc(Clinical) FANZCVS(Dairy Cattle Medicine and Management)
Reviewed by Lisa Whitfield MVM(Distinction) BVSc




Journal Feeds on Vetlexicon

We have now included Journal Feeds to various veterinary publications throughout Vetlexicon. You’ll find the Journal Feeds on the left-hand side in each Category within Canis, Felis, Lapis, Exotis, Equis and Bovis. Check them out for all the latest veterinary news and articles from around the globe!





Contributor News – Zoë Halfacree

Congratulations to Zoë Halfacree MA VetMB CertVDI DipECVS CertSAS FRCVS, a soft tissue specialist at Davies Veterinary Specialists (Davies) who has been awarded a Fellowship by the Royal College of Veterinary Surgeons (RCVS).

Prior to joining Davies in October 2020, Zoë was a Senior Lecturer in Small Animal Surgery and Head of Soft Tissue Surgery at the RVC.

Zoe has been valued contributor to Vetlexicon Canis and Felis for many years. Check out her list of contributions here!





Search Feature Enhancement

We have enhanced the search feature on Vetlexicon, so it now remembers your search history! Once you have selected your Species and Content type filters, they'll be remembered so there is no need to re-enter your search criteria when you want to view other options. Try it out now here!







Contributor News – Alex Dugdale

Huge congratulations to Alex Dugdale for being awarded the RCVS Fellowship for Meritorious Contributions to Clinical Practice in the veterinary profession.

Alex is a valued contributor for Vetlexicon Bovis and was involved in the original development of Bovis back in 2017. Check out her latest contributions here!