Serum fructosamine in Rabbits (Lapis) | Vetlexicon
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Serum fructosamine

ISSN 2398-2969


  • Glycosylated protein complexes.
  • Forms in blood in a non-enzymic, non-insulin-dependent manner.
  • [Fructosamine] proportional to [glucose]   Blood biochemistry: glucose   over life-span of protein - mostly albumin (1-2 weeks).
  • Used to identify long-term presence of hyperglycemia.
  • Less affected by short-term factors: stress, feeding, exercise.
  • Useful in prey animals where handling alone can give falsely elevated blood glucose measurements.



  • The true use of fructosamine in rabbit medicine is still to be fully established, however reference ranges have been documented in experimental studies.
  • To distinguish persistent hyperglycemia of diabetes mellitus   Diabetes mellitus  from transient hyperglycemia induced by a stressor.
  • Initial levels should be obtained before a treatment course is started.
  • Fructosamine can be used to monitor response to insulin therapy in treated diabetic animals.

In combination

  • Differentiates hyperglycemic, non-diabetic animals from true diabetics.

Other points

  • Fructosamine values should be evaluated in conjunction with clinical signs of the patient and other diagnostic results obtained.


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  • Photometric (colorimetric) method based on the ability of ketoamines to reduce nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) to formazan in an alkaline medium.


  • Available in most commercial laboratories.



  • Good sensitivity for glycosylated proteins.


  • Color may be generated by compounds other than glycosylated proteins, eg elevated bilirubin values. This may result in falsely elevated values. Second generation assays, if used, are highly specific for glycosylated proteins.

Predictive value

  • A diagnosis of diabetes mellitus should not be based entirely on fructosamine values.
  • Clinical signs, repeat urinalysis and blood glucose   Blood biochemistry: glucose  values should also be taken into consideration.

Result Data

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Further Reading


Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Conaway H H, Faas F H, Smith S D & Saunders L L (1981) Spontaneous diabetes mellitus in the New Zealand white rabbit: physiological characteristics. Metabolism 30 (1), 50-56 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Harpole T, Runyeard V, English K & Archer J (2002) Serum Fructosamine in Hyperglycaemic Rabbits. In: 2th ECVIM-CA/ESVIM Congress.
  • Holloway H K R & Carmichael N G (2001) Significance of Serum Fructosamine in Rabbits. In: BSAVA Congress, Birmingham, UK.


  • Idexx Laboratories, PO Box 4, Wetherby, West Yorkshire LS22 4ZR, UK.
  • Pinmoore Animal Laboratory Services, The Coach House, Town House Barn, Tarporley Road, Clotton, Tarporley, Cheshire CW6 0EG, UK.