Raisin poisoning in Cats (Felis) | Vetlexicon
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Raisin poisoning

ISSN 2398-2950


Introduction

  • Cause: all fruit products of Vitis vinifera (a perennial woody climbing vine) should be considered potentially toxic to cats. Anecdotal evidence of poisoning exists in cats, but this has not been well documented.
  • Signs: gastrointestinal effects, anorexia, and lethargy. In many cases renal failure characterized by oliguria or anuria, and accompanying elevation in levels of calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine.
  • Diagnosis: signs and case history.
  • Treatment: no antidote. Gastric decontamination, aggressive fluid therapy and supportive management.
  • Prognosis: unlimited information is available as only anecdotal cases are reported in cats. Prognosis is likely to be poor in animals that develop oliguria or anuria.

Presenting signs

  • Vomiting.
  • Abdominal tenderness.
  • Anorexia.
  • Lethargy.
  • Vomitus and stools may contain partially digested fruit material.

Acute presentation

  • Elevated calcium, phosphorus, urea and creatinine concentrations.
  • Renal failure.

Geographic incidence

  • Worldwide, as these fruits are a staple of many cuisines.

Age predisposition

  • None apparent.

Cost considerations

Special risks

  • None apparent.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Ingestion of plant fruits (fresh or dried).
  • There are only anecdotal reports of poisoning in cats.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Animals with pre-existing renal disease may be more at risk.

Pathophysiology

  • Toxic principle and thus, mechanism of action has not been established.
  • Poisoning has occurred in dogs after ingestion of fresh grapes (with and without seeds), dried fruits (raw and cooked), and grape pomace or marc (the skins, pulp, seeds and stems of fruit after pressing for wine making).
  • There is no apparent dose-response relationship between the exposure dose and the development of renal lesions observed in dogs. There is no information on the toxic dose in cats.

Timecourse

  • No information in cats but in dogs onset of signs is variable, although gastrointestinal signs are usually apparent within 6 hours.
  • Signs of renal impairment or failure are usually apparent between 24 and 72 hours.
  • Full recovery, if it occurs, may take 3 weeks or more.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Yoon S S, Byun J W, Kim M J et al (2011) Natural occurrence of grape poisoning in two dogs. J Vet Med Sci 73 (2), 275-257 PubMed.
  • Sutton N M, Bates N & Campbell A (2009) Factors influencing outcome of Vitis vinifera (grapes, raisins, currants and sultanas) intoxication in dog. Vet Rec 164 (14), 430-431 PubMed.
  • Stanley S W, Langston C E (2008) Hemodiaysis in a dog with acute renal failure from currant toxicity. Can Vet J 49 (1), 63-66 PubMed
  • Eubig P A, Brady M S, Gwaltney-Brant S M et al (2005) Acute renal failure in dogs after the ingestion of grapes or raisins: a retrospective evaluation of 43 dogs (1992-2002). J Vet Intern Med 19 (5), 663-674 PubMed.
  • Morrow C M, Valli V E, Volmer P A et al (2005) Canine renal pathology associated with grape or raisin ingestion: 10 cases. J Vet Diagn Invest 17 (3), 223-231 PubMed.
  • Gwaltney-Brant S, Holding J K, Donaldson C W et al (2001) Renal failure associated with ingestion of grapes or raisins in dogs. JAVMA 218 (10), 1555-1556 PubMed.

Organisation(s)