The outer sheath is a multilayered membrane which surrounds the protoplasmic cylinder.
Wound around the protoplasmic cylinder inside the outer sheath are periplasmic flagellae, between 2 and 100 per cell, depending on the species. One end of each flagellum is inserted near a pole of the protoplasmic cylinder and the other end is unattached.
Optimal growth at 29-30°C.
Killed by heating to 50°C for 10 mins.
Desiccation inactivates organism.
Inactivated by direct sunlight.
Inactivated by acidic urine.
No growth on blood agar or other routine media.
Grows in broths, eg Korthof or Stuart.
Generation time averages 12 hours.
Can survive for around 3 months in moist, temperate environments.
Survive in contaminated water.
Areas of high rainfall and poor drainage harbor infections.
Long generation time (12 hours).
Reservoir hosts include rodents. Reservoir hosts become infected with host-adapted serovars.
Leptospira spp are found in the mammalian kidney and excreted in the urine. The reservoir host shows none or only mild clinical signs.
Direct or indirect - contact with mucous membranes or damaged skin.
Indirect - depends on wet conditions.
Antibodies important for clearance.
Damage vascular epithelium.
Damages parenchymal tissue in organs to which it is disseminated.
Diseases associated with L. interogans
Subclinical with L. canicola.
Acute hemorrhagic disease, L. icterohemorrhagiae.
Less acute icteric type, L. canicola or L. icterohemorrhagiae.