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- The x-ray film emulsion is susceptible to damage particularly when wet
- If the emulsion is removed from the film by scratches the resulting artifact will be white.
- Damage to the emulsion by pressure results in black marks on the image.
- Radiographic films should be handled by their edges. Emulsion may be damaged by dragging films across cassettes or work surfaces or by pinching with long finger nails.
- Metal guides in automatic processors are also sometimes the cause of this type of scratching.