Ultrasonography: thyroid/parathyroid glands in Cats (Felis) | Vetlexicon
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Ultrasonography: thyroid/parathyroid glands

ISSN 2398-2950

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Introduction

  • The procedure is best performed in a quiet room with reduced lighting.
  • The patient should be still for the examination, sedation may be required.
  • A nurse is required to assist in restraint of the patient.
  • Optimal probe to skin contact is required.
  • The patient identification, date, and name of practice should be entered into the ultrasound machine before commencing the procedure.
  • Images of the examination should be kept for future reference.

Uses

  • Assessment of:

Advantages

  • Non-invasive.
  • Straightforward.
  • Non-painful.
  • Available in many practices.
  • Allows guided biopsies Biopsy: ultrasound-guided.
  • Short time required for assessment: 5-15 min, dependent upon patient compliance, and skill of ultrasonographer. Experience will significantly reduce time required.

Disadvantages

  • Usually requires clipping of patient’s coat.
  • Normal ultrasonographic appearance does not exclude disease.
  • Abnormal ultrasonographic appearance does not always represent significant disease.
  • Similar ultrasonographic appearance with different diseases.

Technical problems

  • Inadequate probe-skin contact.
  • Inadequate clipping of coat.
  • Inadequate use of ultrasound gel.
  • Inadequate restraint.
  • Equipment failure.

Alternative techniques

  • Cytopathology: fine needle aspirates Fine needle aspirate: ultrasound-guided can be obtained from neck masses for cytological examination. However, the information to be gained from this technique can be quite limited. The diagnostic value of this technique is improved by combining it with ultrasonography to guide the needle to the site of interest (particularly with focal lesions).
  • Histopathology: percutaneous biopsy Biopsy: overview. The diagnostic value of the former is also enhanced by combining it with ultrasonography. The information gained by this technique is usually of greater value than fine needle aspirate.
  • MRI/CT: provide detailed information about architecture of structures.

Decision taking

Criteria for choosing procedure

  • Is the ultrasound examination appropriate?
  • Will the examination tell you what you need to know?
  • Will the management of the patient be affected by the findings?
  • Do you possess the appropriate skills required?
    • Knowledge of normal anatomy, including location, vascular supply and drainage, and lymphatic drainage.
    • Knowledge of the normal ultrasonographic appearance.
    • Knowledge of the parenchymal variations seen with non-neoplastic disease.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Pathological changes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wisner E R & Nyland T G (1998) Ultrasonography of the thyroid and parathyroid glands Vet Clin N Am Small Anim Pract 28 (4), 973–991 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Neelis D A, Mattoon J S & Nyland T G (2015) Neck: Small Animal Diagnostic Ultrasound. 3rd edn Elsevier Saunders, USA. p 155-187.