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Hyperglycemia

ISSN 2398-2985

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Synonym(s): High blood glucose (blood sugar)

Introduction

  • Cause: insulin deficiency (diabetes mellitus), insulin resistance, stress, neoplasia, metabolic disease, can be physiological, iatrogenic, drug use in certain species.
  • Signs: polyuria, polydipsia, lethargy, polyphagia, weight loss, cataracts, neurological signs if severe.
  • Diagnosis: blood glucose measurement, urinalysis, investigation of underlying cause.
  • Treatment: insulin therapy, diet change, treat underlying cause.
  • Prognosis: variable depending on cause.

Presenting signs

  • Polyuria.
  • Polydipsia.
  • Weight loss.
  • Polyphagia.
  • Lethargy.

Cost considerations

  • Bloodwork, imaging and cytology/histopathology may be required depending on the underlying cause.
  • Treatment may require close, regular monitoring, eg if insulin is used.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Persistent hyperglycemia and suspected diabetes mellitus have been documented in a Green iguana Green iguana, a Chinese water dragon Chinese water dragon and several chelonians.
  • Hyperglycemia is associated with neuroendocrine carcinoma in Bearded dragons Bearded dragons.
  • Secondary to obesity Obesity (insulin resistance).
  • Liver disease.
  • Drug use (corticosteroids).
  • Stress.
  • Physiological high glucose may be found in some chelonians following hibernation Hibernation / brumation.

Predisposing factors

General

Epidemiology

  • Rarely reported.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Colon V A & Di Girolamo N (2020) Prognostic value of packed cell volume and blood glucose concentration in 954 client-owned chelonians. JAVMA 257 (12), 1265-1272 PubMed.
  • Ritter J M, Garner M M, Chilton J A, Jacobson E R & Kiupel M (2009) Gastric neuroendocrine carcinomas in bearded dragons (Pogona vitticeps). Vet Pathol 46 (6), 1109-1116 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Stahl S J (2019) Hyperglycemia. In: Mader's Reptile and Amphibian Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Divers S J & Stahl S J. Elsevier. pp 1314-1315.
  • Stacy N, Heard D & Wellehan J (2019) Diagnostic Sampling and Laboratory Tests. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. Eds: Girling S & Raiti P. British Small Animal Veterinary Association, UK. pp 115-133.