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Gastritis

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Synonym(s): Inflammation of the gastric mucosa

Introduction

  • Cause: inflammation of the gastric mucosa. Acute or chronic.
  • Signs: anorexia, vomiting, regurgitation, hypersalivation, tooth grinding, weight loss, melena (if gastric ulceration present).
  • Diagnosis: clinical presentation, radiographs, contrast radiographs, gastroscopy, gastric lavage, biopsy, PCR, fecal parasitology, post-mortem findings.
  • Treatment: supportive care with fluid therapy, analgesia, nutritional support. Gastric protectants, antacids. Targeted treatment of the inciting cause.
  • Prognosis: good to guarded depending on the etiology.

Presenting signs

  • Vomiting or regurgitation.
  • Hypersalivation.
  • Tooth grinding (pain response).
  • Weight loss.
  • Lethargy.
  • Midbody swelling (cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidiosis in snakes).

Acute presentation

  • Vomiting.
  • Dehydration.
  • Painful abdomen – tooth grinding, belly pressing.
  • Collapse.

Geographic incidence

  • Worldwide.

Public health considerations

  • Some infectious causes of gastritis are zoonotic, eg salmonellosis.

Cost considerations

  • May required extensive diagnostic tests including surgical biopsies.
  • Treatment can be prolonged in some cases.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

Predisposing factors

General

  • Poor husbandry.
  • Stress.
  • Immunosuppression.
  • Poor housing hygiene.

Specific

  • Use of corticosteroids or NSAIDs may lead to gastric ulceration.

Pathophysiology

  • Inflammation of the gastric mucosa.

Timecourse

  • Acute or chronic presentation.

Epidemiology

  • May see outbreaks of disease in groups, eg parasitic infections.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Latney L V, Wellehan J F X (2020) Selected emerging diseases of Squamata: An update. Vet Clin Exot Anim 23 (2), 353-371 PubMed.
  • Cerveny S N S, Garner M M, D'Agostino J J et al (2012) Evaluation of gastroscopic biopsy for diagnosis of Cryptosporidium spp infection in snakes. J Zoo Wildlife Med 43 (4), 864-871 PubMed.
  • Shahiduzzaman M, Dyachenko V, Keidel J et al (2010) Combination of cell culture and quantitative PCR (cc-qPCR) to assess disinfectants efficacy on Cryptosporidium oocysts under standardized conditions. Vet Parasitol 167 (1), 43-49 PubMed.
  • Orós J, Rodríguez J L, Herráez P et al (1996) Respiratory and digestive lesions caused by Salmonella arizonae in two snakes. J Comp Pathol 115 (2), 185-189 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Brown S J L, Naylor A D, Machin R & Pellett S (2019) Gastrointestinal System. In: BSAVA Manual of Reptiles. 3rd edn. Eds: Girling S J & Raiti P. BSAVA, UK. pp 284-308.