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Tramadol

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Introduction

Name

  • Tramadol hydrochloride.

Class of drug

  • Analgesic drug with both an opioid and non-opioid mediated mechanisms of analgesic action.

Description

Chemical name

  • (±) cis-2-[(dimethylamino)methyl]-1-(3-methoxyphenyl) cyclohexanol hydrochloride.

Molecular formula

  • C16H26ClNO2.

Molecular weight

  • 299.8.

Physical properties

  • White crystalline powder.
  • Freely soluble in water or alcohol.
  • Slightly soluble in acetone.

Storage requirements

  • Tramadol tablets should be stored at room temperature in tight, light-resistant containers.
  • Tramadol is a Schedule 3 Controlled Drug in the UK and a similar status may apply in other countries.
Be aware of the potential for abuse of the drug by humans.
 

Uses

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Administration

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Pharmacokinetics

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Precautions

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Withdrawal Periods

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Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Giorgi M, Salvadori M, De Vito V et al (2015) Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic assessments of 10 mg/kg tramadol intramuscular injection in yellow-bellied slider turtle (Trachemys scripta scripta). J Vet Pharmacol Therap 38, 488-496 PubMed.
  • Norton T M, Cox S, Nelson S E et al (2015) Pharmacokinetics of tramadol and o-desmethytramadol in loggerhead sea turtles (caretta caretta). J Zoo Wildl Med 46 (2), 262-265 PubMed.
  • Baker B B, Sladky K K & Johnson S M (2011) Evaluation of the analgesic effects of oral and subcutaneous tramadol administration in red-eared slider turtles. JAVMA 238 (2), 220-227 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Carpenter J W (2013) Reptiles. In: Exotic Animal Formulary. 3rd edn. Elsevier, USA. pp 113.
  • Greenace C B, Massi K, Schumacher J P et al (2008) Comparative Antinociception of Various Opioids and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Medications Versus Saline in the Bearded Dragon (Pogona Vitticeps) using Electrostimulation. Proc Annu Conf Rept Amph Vet. pp 87.
  • The NOAH Compendium. Datasheets of Licensed Veterinary Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
  • US Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Questions and Answers on FDA's Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS). Website: www.fda.gov.
  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate. Adverse Reaction Reporting. Website: www.vmd.defra.gov.uk.

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