Enucleation in Ferrets | Vetlexicon
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Enucleation

ISSN 2398-2985


Introduction

  • Surgical procedure for removal of the globe for control of numerous conditions, such as uncontrolled uveitis, glaucoma as well as retrobulbar abscesses and hypopyon.
  • Often required because of trauma such as globe rupture and exophthalmos.
  • Occasionally required to treat ocular neoplasia.

Uses

Advantages

  • Relatively easy technique for surgery with a short general anesthetic.
  • In cases of retrobulbar abscesses, allows direct access for clearing of debris, pus, and better drainage.
  • Provides immediate pain relief.
  • Post-operative medication usually only required for short period of time.
  • Diseased eye often has little to no vision left and the animal has already adapted.
  • Histopathology of removed globe can provide a definitive diagnosis for underlying condition.

Disadvantages

  • Loss of sight if any present before enucleation.
  • Retrobulbar abscesses can recur despite enucleation.
  • Risk of general anesthesia.
  • Risk of wound infection.
  • Risk of wound breakdown.
  • Drastic cosmetic change: site of enucleation may leave a depression at the site.

Technical problems

  • Globe often very small.
  • Requires magnification.
  • Risk of bleeding during surgery.

Alternative techniques

  • Exenteration (surgical removal of the globe, orbital contents, and eyelids) in cases with orbital neoplasia, ocular or retrobulbar infection.

Time required

Preparation

  • 10 min.

Procedure

  • 20-30 min.

Decision taking

Criteria for choosing test

  • Presence of untreatable glaucoma.
  • Uncontrollable pain or damage to the globe.
  • Computed tomography imaging.

Risk assessment

  • Risk of anesthesia, post-operative wound breakdown and infection should be discussed with the owner pre-operatively.
  • Severe hemorrhage can occur if venous sinus is ruptured.
  • Due to the size of the eye in most exotic species, a transpalpebral approach to enucleation is usually easier and faster.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Technique

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • Capello V (2009) Ferrets: Common Surgical Procedures. In: BSAVA Manual of Rodents and Ferrets. Eds: Keeble E & Meredith A. BSAVA, UK. pp 267.