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Musculoskeletal neoplasia

ISSN 2398-2985


Synonym(s): Neoplasia (spinal/bone tumors) other than lymphoma

Introduction

  • Many different tumors have been described involving the musculoskeletal system, including osteoma, osteosarcoma, chordoma, chondrosarcoma and fibrosarcoma.
  • Signs: mass/lump, posterior paresis, ataxia.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, myelography, CT, biopsy.
  • Treatment: surgical removal.

Presenting signs

  • Visible mass/lump.
  • Posterior paresis.
  • Ataxia.
  • Pain.

Acute presentation

  • Most musculoskeletals neoplasms of ferrets are actually slow growing.

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • The types of neoplasia derive from the tissue of origin.
  • Chordomas Chordoma arise from remnants of the notochord.
  • Osteomas arise from the skull, zygomatic arch, parietal bone or occipital bone.
  • Chondrosarcomas have been described appearing on the tail; morphologic description is similar to chordomas but can be differentiated with immunohistochemistry.
  • Fibrosarcomas arise from the periosteal tissue of the perivertebral connective tissue.

Epidemiology

  • Tumors of the skeletal system are relatively common in ferrets, while tumors of the muscles are relatively rare.
  • Chordomas are the most commonly reported musculoskeletal neoplasm in ferrets.
  • Malignant tumors are far less common than their benign counterparts.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Maguire R, Reavill D R, Maguire P & Jenkins J R (2014) Chondrosarcoma associated with the appendicular skeleton of 2 domestic ferrets. J Exotic Pet Med 23 (2), 165-171 VetMedResource.
  • Camus M S, Rech R R, Seng Choy F, Fiorello C V & Howerth E W (2009) Pathology in practice. JAVMA 235 (8), 949-951 JAVMA.
  • Perpiñán D, Bargalló F, Ramis A, et al. (2008) Thoracic vertebral osteoma in a domestic ferret (Mustela putorius furo). J Exotic Pet Med 17 (2), 144-147 ScienceDirect.
  • Hanley C S, Gieger T & Frank P (2004) What is your diagnosis? Multilobular osteoma (MLO). JAVMA 225 (11), 1665-1666 PubMed.
  • Jensen W A, Myers R K & Liu C H (1985) Osteoma in a ferret. JAVMA 187 (12), 1375-1376 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Fox J G & Marini R P (2014) Eds. Biology and Diseases of the Ferret. 3rd edn. Wiley Blackwell, USA. pp 835.
  • Antinoff N & Giovanella C J (2012) Musculoskeletal and Neurologic Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Elsevier, USA. pp 132-140.