Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in Ferrets | Vetlexicon
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Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

ISSN 2398-2985


Synonym(s): HCM

Introduction

  • HCM is considered rare in ferrets.
  • Cause: unknown.
  • Signs: weak/irregular pulse, tachycardia, arrhythmias, systolic heart murmur, increased respiratory sounds, moist rales and/or crackles.
  • Diagnosis: radiography, echocardiography, electrocardiography, hematology and biochemistry.
  • Treatment: beta blockers, calcium channel blockers,
  • Prognosis: guarded to poor.
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Presenting signs

  • Often asymptomatic
  • Weakness
  • Anorexia
  • Depression
  • Dyspnea and/or tachypnea as a consequence of congestive heart failure.

Acute presentation

  •  Sudden death.

Age predisposition

  •  Reported to be more common in young ferrets, compared with dilated cardiomyopathy, which is seen in ferrets older than 4 years.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Suggested to occur more commonly in younger ferrets, although predisposing factors are not known due to low incidence of diagnosis; it can be found in geriatric ferrets.
  • The etiology is currently unknown.
  • In other species (humans, cats) genetic abnormalities have been found, but this has not been studied in ferrets at this time.
  • In cats, an association has been found with hyperthyroidism and hypertension, however this has not been linked in ferrets.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Wagner R A (2009) Ferret cardiology. Vet Clin North Am Exotic Anim Pract 12 (1), 115-134 PubMed.
  • Heatley J J (2007) Ferret cardiomyopathy. Comp Stand Care Emerg Crit Care Med 8 (3), 7-11.

Other sources of information

  • Von Zeeland Y R A & Schoemaker N J (2017) Disorders of the Cardiovascular System. In: Ferret Medicine and Surgery. Ed: Johnson-Delaney C A. CRC Press, USA. pp 127-157.
  • Morrisey J K & Kraus M S (2012) Ferrets: Cardiovascular and other Diseases. In: Ferrets, Rabbits and Rodents: Clinical Medicine and Surgery. 3rd edn. Eds: Quesenberry K E & Carpenter J W. Saunders, USA. pp 62-77.