Chorioptes infestation (chorioptic mange) in Horses (Equis) | Vetlexicon
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Chorioptes infestation (chorioptic mange)

ISSN 2398-2977


Synonym(s): Scaly leg, leg mange

Introduction

  • Parasitic skin disease; more common in heavy breeds due to feathering.
  • Cause: mange mite Chorioptes bovis.
  • Signs: irritation of the distal limbs or other affected body regions. Scaling, crusting, alopecia.
  • Diagnosis: skin scrapes, brushings of acetate tapes taken from edge of lesions.
  • Treatment: ectoparasiticides.
  • Prognosis: may need on-going treatment – prone to repeat bouts of disease.

Presenting signs

  • Scaly and/or exudative lesions of lower limbs.
  • Pruritus – nibbling/rubbing at the area, stamping of the feet.
  • Non-pathogenic in some animals.

Breed/species predisposition

  • Heavy breeds with feathering.

Cost considerations

  • Medical treatment relatively cheap, but may be on-going.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Chorioptes equi = Chorioptes bovis var equi.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Heavy breeds with thick feathering on limbs.
  • Winter.

Pathophysiology

  • MitesChorioptes equi: mite 01live on skin surface and are non-burrowing.
  • Small crusty lesions are pruritic and can include self-trauma; excoriation and alopecia Skin: alopecia areata may also be seen.
  • The disease can spread up over the rump and onto the body if left untreated.
  • Transmission can be direct or via bedding, etc.
  • The mites are non-invasive, living in the superficial layers of the skin. Irritation is caused by their movement.

Timecourse

  • Life cycle is approximately 2-3 weeks.

Epidemiology

  • Mites hatch and develop to adults in approximately 2-3 weeks.
  • Mites are capable of surviving off the host for up to 69 days.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Brys M, Claerebout E & Chiers K (2023) Alleviating lesions of chrosnic progressive lymphedema in Belgian draft horses by successfully treating Chorioptes bovis infestation with moxidectin 0,5% pour-on. Vet Parasitol 324, 110074 PubMed.
  • Kondratjeva J, Combarros D, Pressanti C et al (2022) What is the most effective treatment in horses with chorioptic mange? Equine Vet Educ 35, 163-168 Wiley Online.
  • Lusat J, Bornstein S & Wall R (2011) Chorioptes mites: re-evaluation of species integrity. Med and Vet Entomol 25 (4), 370-376 PubMed.
  • Paterson S & K Coumbe (2009) An open study to evaluate topical treatment of equine chorioptic mange with shampooing and lime sulphur solution. Vet Dermatol 20 (5-6), 623-629 PubMed.
  • Rendle D I, Cottle H J, Love S et al (2007) Comparative study of doramectin and fipronil in the treatment of equine chorioptic mange. Vet Rec 161 (10), 335-338 PubMed.
  • Osman S A, Hanafy A & Amer S E (2006) Clinical and therapeutic studies on mange in horses. Vet Parasitol 141 (1-2), 191-195 Pubmed.
  • Bergvall K (2005) Advances in Acquisition, Identification, and Treatment of Equine Ectoparasites. Clin Tech Equine Pract 4 (4), 296-301 ScienceDirect.
  • Pilsworth R C & Knottenbelt D C (2005) Chorioptic mange. Skin disease refresher. Equine Vet Educ 17 (3), 116-117 Wiley Online.
  • Littlewood J (2000) Chorioptic mange – successful treatment of a case with fipronil. Equine Vet Education 12 (3), 144-146 VetMedResource.
  • Curtis C F (1999) Pilot study to investigate the efficacy of a 1 per cent selenium sulphide shampoo in the treatment of equine chorioptic mange. Vet Rec 144, 674-675 PubMed.
  • Littlewood J D (1999) Control of ectoparasites in horses. In Pract.418-424 VetMedResource.
  • Littlewood J D, Rose J & Patterson S (1995) Oral ivermectin paste for the treatment of chorioptic mange in horses. Vet Rec 137 (26), 661-663 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Scott D W & Miller W H (2011) Equine Dermatology. 2nd edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Knottenbelt D C (2009) Pascoe’s Principles and Practice of Equine Dermatology. 2nd edn. Saunders, USA.
  • Urqhart G M, Armour J, Duncan J L et al (1988) Veterinary Parasitology. Longmann Scientific & Technical. ISBN: 0 5824 0906 3.
  • Rose R J & Hodgson D R (1993) Manual of Equine Practice. Saunders. ISBN: 0 7216 3739 6.
  • Scott D W (1988) Large Animal Dermatology. W B Saunders, USA.