Myelography in Horses (Equis) | Vetlexicon
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Myelography

ISSN 2398-2977


Introduction

  • Structures in the vertebral canal can be outlined with contrast medium.

Uses

  • To confirm the nature, extent and site of the cervical vertebral malformation Spine: cervical vertebral malformation (CVM) Spine: deformity (cf normal Spine: cervical normal flexed - myelogramSpine: cervical normal neutral - myelogram).
  • To confirm a diagnosis of spinal cord compression due to soft tissue changes.
  • To assess spinal cord compression associated with trauma Spine: fracture.
  • To differentiate normal cervical static stenosis at C5-6/C6-7 evident radiographically from cases associated with intramedullary lesions.

Advantages

  • Diagnosis not possible with other diagnostic modalities.

Disadvantages

  • Requires general anesthesia for complete assessment.
  • Infrequent side-effects include focal seizures, generalized seizures, peripheral neuropathy, blindness, increase in neurologic grade/ataxia, stiffness or neck pain, and non-specific hyperthermia.

Do not use technique unless the results would alter the management of the case.

  • Standing technique does not permit flexed, extended and ventrodorsal views.

Alternative techniques

Time required

Preparation

Procedure

  • Depending on number of views taken: 30-45 min.

Decision taking

Criteria for choosing test

  • Compression of >50% of the dorsal dye column considered significant but false positive and false negative results still occur Spine: cervical malformation C2-C3 - flexed contrast radiograph.
  • Minimum flexed dural diameter measurements definitive.
  • Loss of ventral dye column on flexion of the neck is normal.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Technique

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Gough S L, Anderson J D C & Dixon J J (2020) Computed tomographic cervical myelography in horses: Technique and findings in 51 clinical cases. J Vet Intern Med 34 (4), 2142-2151 PubMed.
  • Estell K, Spriet M, Phillips K L et al (2018) Current dorsal myelographic column and dural diameter reduction rules do not apply at the cervicothoracic junction in horses. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 59 (6), 662-666 PubMed.
  • Mullen K R, Furness M C, Johnson A L et al (2015) Adverse reactions in horses that underwent general anesthesia and cervical myelography. J Vet Intern Med 29 (3), 954-60 PubMed.
  • Levine J M, Scrivani P V, Divers T J et al (2010) Multicenter case-control study of signalment, diagnostic features, and outcome associated with cervical vertebral malformation-malarticulation in horses. JAVMA 237 (7), 812-22 PubMed.
  • van Biervliet J et al (2004) Evaluation of decision criteria for detection of spinal cord compression based on cervical myelography in horses: 38 cases (1981-2001). Equine Vet J 36 (1), 14-20 PubMed.
  • Widmer W R et al (1998) A prospective clinical trial comparing metrizamide and iohexol for equine myelography​. Vet Radiol Ultrasound 39 (2), 106-109 PubMed.
  • Tomizawa N et al (1994) Relationships between radiography of cervical vertebrae and histopathology of the cervical cord in wobbling 19 foals. J Vet Med Sci 56 (2), 27-233 PubMed.