ISSN 2398-2993      

Papilloma virus: autogenous vaccine in-house production

obovis
Contributor(s):

Ash Phipps

Mark Little


Introduction

One of the techniques included in this article involves the use of formalin/formaldehyde. It is essential to check local rules and ensure that the use of formalin in a veterinary medicine is permitted in your locality. Rules may vary between countries and the responsibility to comply with local rules rests with the individual veterinary surgeon.
  • Therapeutic vaccination of cattle with papillomatous lesions Papillomatosis to induce a humoral and cell mediated immune response against a specific bovine papilloma virus (BPV) Papilloma virus resulting in regression of the warty lesion.
  • Prophylactic vaccination of cattle (as young as 4-6 weeks of age).

Uses

Advantages

  • The preparation of an autogenous bovine papillomavirus vaccine can be carried out in-house and does not require specialist equipment.
  • The autogenous vaccine is specific to the bovine papillomavirus causing the lesion in the animal it was taken from.
  • In cases of extensive papillomatous lesions, vaccination is less invasive than surgical removal.

Disadvantages

  • May be unnecessary for some bovine patients as spontaneous regression is common.
  • The response to the bovine papillomavirus vaccine is variable.
  • Repeated injections of the autogenous vaccine may be required.
  • Refrigeration facilities are required.
  • If formaldehyde is used, then appropriate safety protocols should be followed, and local rules adhered to.
The use of formaldehyde must caution a health and safety warning, for example, in the UK the Health and Safety Executive has produced guidance on Formaldehyde and its safe use in the non-veterinary workplace (see references below). In particular, goggles, PVC gloves and aprons must be worn, and work must take place in a well-ventilated area.
  • Most autogenous vaccines are made with an antimicrobial agent (antimicrobial stewardship concerns).
  • In the UK, the manufacturing premises and the method of production must be the subject of a valid Autogenous Vaccination Authorization (AVA) from the Veterinary Medicines Directorate (VMD). This is needed for autogenous vaccines manufactured from pathogens or antigens obtained from an animal/s and used for the treatment of that animal and/or other animals within the same epidemiological unit or in the same rearing chain. More information in the references below.

Requirements

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Preparation

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Procedure

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Prognosis

  • Some papers report a response to autogenous vaccination >90%. Regression of papilloma occurs approximately 3 weeks after the initial treatment and complete disappearance within 6 weeks of initial treatment.
  • Poor if >20% of the body is affected by papillomata. For animals this severely affected, an underlying immune issue should be considered.

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Ponce-Covarrubias J L, Pineda-Burgos B C, Hernández-Ruiz P E et al (2021) Repeated administration of autogenous vaccine decreases papillomatosis in female bovines. Revista MVZ Córdoba 26 (3), e2023 RevistaMVZ.
  • Aydin H, Gelen V, Sengul E & Yildirim S (2020) Immunological effects of autogenous vaccine administration in cattle with cutaneous papillomatosis. Acta Veterinaria Eurasia 46 (3), 98-104 ActaVet (pdf download).
  • Terziev G, Roydev R, Kalkanov I et al (2015) Papillomatosis in heifers - Comparative studies on Surgical excision and autogenous vaccine therapies. Trakia J Sci 13 (2), 274-279 UniZS (pdf download).
  • Ranjan R, Ghumman S P S, Bhatt G R & Singh R S (2013) Efficacy of autogenous vaccine and auto-hemotherapy in bovine cutaneous papillomatosis. Intas Polivet 14 (2), 411-414 ResearchGate (pdf download).
  • Sreeparvathy M, Harish C & Anuraj K S (2011) Autogenous vaccination as a treatment method for bovine papillomatosis. J Livestock Sci 2, 38-40.
  • Turk N, Zupancic Z, Staresina V et al (2005) Severe bovine papillomatosis: detection of bovine papillomavirus in tumour tissue and efficacy of treatment using autogenous vaccine and parammunity inducer. Veterinarski Arhiv 75 (5), 391.
  • Hunt E (1984) Fibropapillomatosis and papillomatosis. Vet Clin North Am Large Anim Pract 6, 163-167.

Other sources of information

  • Veterinary Medicines Directorate (2022) Autogenous Vaccine, Non-Food Animal Blood Bank, Equine Stem Cell Centre Authorisation. VMD, UK. Website: www.gov.uk.
  • Health and Safety Executive (online) Formaldehyde... its Safe Use in Foundries. HSE, UK. Website: www.hse.gov.uk.

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