ISSN 2398-2993      

Vitamin K

obovis
Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

Andrea Tarr

Synonym(s): Phytomenadione, Phytonadione


Introduction

Name

  • Vitamin K1.

Class of drug

  • Vitamin.

Description

Chemical name

  • C31H46O2.

Molecular formula

  • 2-methyl-3-[(E)-3,7,11,15-tetramethylhexadec-2-enyl]naphthalene-1,4-dione.

Molecular weight

  • 450.7.

Physical properties

  • Tablets.
  • Solution.
Background
  • Vitamin K is synthesized by plants (phylloquinone, vitamin K1) and bacteria (menaquinones, vitamin K2).
  • Vitamin K is necessary for the synthesis of prothrombin in the liver, which is essential for blood clotting. Signs of deficiency therefore include bleeding, bruising, hemorrhage and anemia.
  • Under normal conditions, bacterial synthesis in the ruminant gut supplies sufficient vitamin K for the animal’s requirements.
  • Secondary vitamin K deficiency may occur due to the ingestion of dicoumarol Rodenticide poisoning, which is regarded as a vitamin K antagonist. It is also reported to occur when cattle eat moldy sweet clover (Melilotus albus), in which the molds convert naturally occurring coumarins into dicoumarol.

Uses

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Indications

  • Treatment of rodenticide poisoning or moldy sweet clover poisoning.

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

with other drugs

  • The effects of the anticoagulants may be enhanced by drugs such allopurinol, anabolic steroids, aspirin, chloramphenicol, cimetidine Cimetidine, erythromycin Erythromycin, ketoconazole, metronidazole and sulfonamides (including trimethoprim-sulfa Sulfadiazine with trimethoprim.
  • The absorption of oral vitamin K is reduced by mineral oil.

Withdrawal Period

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Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

Other sources of information

  • The European Agency for the Evaluation of Medicinal Products
    Veterinary Medicines Evaluation Unit (1998) Committee for Veterinary Medicinal Products Phytomenadione (Vitamin K1) and Menadione (Vitamin K3) Summary Report.  EMA Europe. Website: www.ema.europa.eu (pdf download).
  • Drugs.com (online) Vitajec K1 (Aspen Veterinary Resources). Animalytix LLC, USA. Website: www.drugs.com.

Organisation(s)

  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.
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