ISSN 2398-2993      

Bacitracin

obovis
Contributor(s):

Vetstream Ltd

Andrea Tarr


Introduction

Name

  • Bacitracin methylene disalicylate.

Class of drug

  • Polypeptide antibiotic.
  • European Medicines Agency (EMA) category D (prudent use) in the categorization of antibiotics for use in animals for prudent and responsible use. 

Description

Chemical name

  • (4R)-5-[[(2S,3S)-1-[[(2S)-6-amino-1-[[(2R)-5-amino-1-[[(2S,3S)-1-[[(2R)-1-[[(2S)-1-[[(2R)-1-[[(1S)-3-amino-1-carboxy-3-oxopropyl]amino]-3-carboxy-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-3-(1H-imidazol-5-yl)-1-oxopropan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxo-3-phenylpropan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-1-oxohexan-2-yl]amino]-3-methyl-1-oxopentan-2-yl]amino]-4-[[(2S)-2-[[2-(1-amino-2-methylbutyl)-4,5-dihydro-1,3-thiazole-4-carbonyl]amino]-4-methylpentanoyl]amino]-5-oxopentanoic acid;(2-hydroxybenzoyl)oxymethyl 2-hydroxybenzoate.

Molecular formula

  • C81H117N17O23S.

Molecular weight

  • 1729.0.

Uses

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Indications

  • Licenced in some countries (US) as a medicated feed for reduction in the number of liver condemnations due to abscesses in feedlot beef cattle  Subacute ruminal acidosis.
This use is contrary to European Medicines Agency advice and is also against RUMA guidelines. Responsible use of antimicrobials would caution against blanket medicating a herd by adding antimicrobials to feed, particularly in a scenario such as liver abscesses which are more likely a reflection of poor nutritional management than a primary disease process.
  • Some studies have concluded that use of bacitracin improves propionate Rumen function and fermentation production and decreased methane in vitro.
  • Used as a growth promoter in pigs and poultry (in some countries).

Administration

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Precautions

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Interactions

With other drugs

  • Nephrotoxic drugs → additive nephrotoxicity.
  • Neuromuscular blocking drugs → enhanced activity of interacting drug.

Adverse Reactions

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Thompson A J,  Smith Z K, Sarturi J O & Johnson B J (2021) Antimicrobial supplementation alters digestibility and ruminal fermentation in a continuous culture model. J Appl Anim Res 49 (1), 23-29 TaylorFrancis.
  • Van Nevel C J & Demeyer D I (1992) Influence of antibiotics and a deaminase inhibitor on volatile fatty acids and methane production from detergent washed hay and soluble starch by rumen microbes in vitro. Anim Feed Sci Technol 37, 21–31 ScienceDirect.
  • Russell J B & Strobel H J (1988) Effects of additives on in vitro ruminal fermentation: a comparison of monensin iand bacitracin, another gram-positive antibiotic. J Anim Sci 66 (2), 552–558 PubMed.
  • Spires H R & Algeo J W (1983) Laidlomycin butyrate - an ionophore with enhanced intraruminal activity. J Anim Sci 57 (6), 1553–1560 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • The Veterinary Formulary (2001)  5th edn. Ed: Bishop Y. British Veterinary Association and Pharmaceutical Press.
  • Veterinary Pharmaceuticals and Biologicals (1999/2000) 11th edn. Veterinary Medicine Publishing Group.
  • National Office of Animal Health (NOAH) Compendium of Data Sheets for Animal Medicines. Website: www.noahcompendium.co.uk.

Organisation(s)

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