ISSN 2398-2993      

Papillomatosis

obovis

Introduction

  • Cause: Bovine Papilloma Virus (BPV 1-12).
  • Signs: papillomas can occur anywhere on the body and may range from flat wide based warts to pedunculated growths. Secondary bacterial infection of lesions is common.
  • Diagnosis: clinical signs consistent with disease. Definitive diagnosis via immunohistochemistry.
  • Treatment: in the majority of cases, await spontaneous recovery. Troublesome lesions may be removed by surgical intervention, cryosurgery or electrocautery. The use of autogenous vaccine made from homogenized lesions has been shown to hasten clinical recovery.
  • Prognosis: good.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Twelve types of Bovine Papilloma Virus Papilloma virus have been characterized (BPV 1-12). With BPV-5 the only variant causing fibropapillomas and epithelial papillomas.

Predisposing factors

General

  • Close contact between animals, for examples, during periods of housing.
  • Fomite transmission via equipment such as milking machines.

Specific

  • Microtrauma allowing infection of epithelia and mucosal cells.

Pathophysiology

  • Papilloma viruses infect cells of the basal stratum of the epidermis and induce hyperplasia. Viral replication is associated with cell differentiation and virus particles are shed in the outer epidermal cells.
  • Disease regression is associated with T Lymphocyte cellular infiltration and is believed to be secondary to a cell mediated response.

Timecourse

  • Lesions may be visible within 4 weeks of inoculation and will continue to grow for a number of weeks. There is considerable variation between infected individuals in the time course of disease, with clinical signs persisting sometimes for up to a year before regression occurs.

Epidemiology

  • Young animals under two years of age are most frequently infected.
  • Mucocutaneous papillomas (warts) are common in cattle and are seen in approximately 50% of cattle presenting to UK abattoirs.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent References from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bhaskar M G (2018) Autogenous vaccine for management of warts in a heiferIntas Polivet 19 (1), 94-96.
  • Savini F, Mancini S, Gallina L et el (2016) Bovine papillomatosis: First detection of bovine papillomavirus types 6, 7, 8, 10 and 12 in Italian cattle herds. Vet J 210, 82-84 PubMed.
  • Mayilkumar K, Kokila S, Manimuthu P & Kuppusamy G (2014) Formalin inactivated autogenous vaccine for treatment of papillomatosis in adult dairy cowIndian J Vet Pathol 91 (10), 13-15 ResearchGate (full pdf download available).
  • Munday J S (2014) Bovine and human papillomaviruses: A comparative review. Vet Pathol 51 (6), 1063-1075 PubMed.
  • Zhu W, Dong J, Uchida K et al (2014) Bovine papillomavirus type 10 with a deletion associated with a lingual papilloma in a cow. Vet J 199 (2), 303-305 PubMed.
  • Yuan Z, Gallagher A, Gaul E A, Saveria Campo M & Nasi L (2007) Papillomavirus infection in equine sarcoids and in bovine bladder cancers. Vet J 174 (3), 599-604 PubMed.

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