ISSN 2398-2993      

Hypotrichosis

obovis
Contributor(s):

Ash Phipps

Paul Wood


Introduction

  • Cause: congenital autosomal recessive or sex-linked condition.
  • Signs: less than the ‘normal’ amount of hair may be present at birth or develops within the first 1-6 months of life. The condition may be associated with other congenital conditions such as anodontia.
  • Diagnosis: provisional diagnosis can be made based on the history and clinical presentation.
  • Treatment: provision of shelter and/or coats to protect the affected animals from the elements.
  • Prognosis: the prognosis is good for most affected calves. If the affected calf has concurrent congenital condition this may affect the prognosis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Congenital autosomal recessive condition (some forms may be sex-linked):
    • In Herefords Hereford it is attributed to the gene mutation, c.334_343del of the KRT71.
    • In Holsteins Holstein a hypotrichosis condition has been attributed to a mutation in the EDA gene (R244X).

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • Either the calf’s dam or sire is carrying the genetic condition.

Pathophysiology

  • Some affected calves are born with the condition, whereas others develop the condition within the first few months of life.
  • The poor structural integrity of the epithelial cells and inner root sheath of the hair follicles results in the loss of the hair fiber.

Timecourse

  • Calf may be affected at birth or the condition may develop in the first few months (1-6 months) of life.

Epidemiology

  • If two individuals in a herd carry the autosomal recessive traits and are mated, then the progeny will be in the proportion of ¼ expressing the disease, ½ clinically normal heterozygous (carriers) and ¼ clinically normal homozygous (non-carriers).
  • Due to the mode of inheritance, it is possible to have a number of off-spring born with the condition if a single sire carrying the condition is used in the herd with high proportion of heterozygous carrier females.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Barlund C S, Clark E G, Leeb T, Drögemüller C & Palmer C W (2007) Congenital hypotrichosis and partial anodontia in a crossbred beef calf. Can Vet J 48 (6), 612 PubMed.
  • Drögemüller C, Kuiper H, Peters M, Guionaud S, Distl O & Leeb T (2002) Congenital hypotrichosis with anodontia in cattle: a genetic, clinical and histological analysis. Vet Derm 13 (6), 307-313 PubMed.
  • Wijeratne W V, O'Toole D, Wood L & Harkness J W (1988) A genetic, pathological and virological study of congenital hypotrichosis and incisor anodontia in cattle. Vet Rec 122 (7), 149-152 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Parkinson T J, Vermunt J J & Malmo J (2019) Diseases of Cattle in Australasia: A Comprehensive Textbook. New Zealand Veterinary Association Foundation for Continuing Education, USA. pp 442-445 & 1046-1047.
  • Radostits O M, Gay C C, Blood D C & Hinchliff K W (2006) Veterinary Medicine. In: A Textbook of the Diseases of Cattle, Sheep, Pigs, Goats and Horses. 7th edn. Saunders, China.

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