ISSN 2398-2993      

Dentigerous cysts

obovis
Contributor(s):

Ash Phipps

Mike Reynolds

Synonym(s): Heterotopic polyodontia


Introduction

  • Cause: congenital abnormality (occurs during early embryonic development).
  • Signs: swelling of the mandibular or maxillary region(s) of the head, often discharging.
  • Diagnosis: gross appearance may be suggestive, however further diagnostic imaging such as radiology, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging may be required. Definitive diagnosis is obtained at histopathological examination.
  • Treatment: surgical excision under general anesthesia is considered the most appropriate treatment for dentigerous cysts in cattle. Other treatments include chemical cauterization, simple incision of the cyst for drainage, or incomplete excision.
  • Prognosis: extra cranial dentigerous cysts carry a good prognosis. Intracranial dentigerous cysts carry a poorer prognosis.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Dentigerous cysts arise during early organogenesis and presents as congenital abnormalities.
  • During embryogenesis, the maxillae, mandibles, and muscles associated with chewing develop from the first branchial cleft and the teeth develop from the epithelium of the oral cavity and blend with the periodontium, cement, and dental papilla, which are derived from mesenchymal tissue.
  • The dentigerous cyst is a deformity derived from deciduous and/or permanent teeth follicles and cell that reside in the dental lamina.
  • Dentigerous cysts consist of osseous tissue like enamel, cementum, dentin and pulpal tissue (malformed tooth/teeth-like structures).

Predisposing factors

General

  • The condition does not appear to be a hereditable condition.

Specific

  • There appear to be no known specific predisposing factors.

Pathophysiology

  • Dentigerous cysts consist of an extra tooth or teeth outside the dental arcades usually within the soft tissues and musculature of the mandibular and maxillary regions.
  • In cattle, the condition has been described as occurring bilaterally and symmetrical.
  • As the dentigerous cyst develop, degeneration of epithelial component of enamel results in accumulation of fluid and encapsulated by fibrous tissue, which causes local destructions in soft tissues, bones and may cause resorption of roots of adjacent teeth.

Timecourse

  • The mass or masses are likely to be present at birth.
  • Time course of the clinical presentation may vary with location and size of the dentigerous cysts.
  • Several clinical cases reported in the literature vary from a few days after birth to a mature animal.

Epidemiology

  • Dentigerous cysts are considered a sporadic condition.

Diagnosis

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to start a free trial to access all Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds and videos, or Login

Treatment

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to start a free trial to access all Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds and videos, or Login

Outcomes

This article is available in full to registered subscribers

Sign up now to start a free trial to access all Vetlexicon articles, images, sounds and videos, or Login

Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Pooniya R, Kumar P, Saini R, Kumar A & Palsania S K (2020) Surgical management of odontoma in cattle. J Entomol Zool Stud (4), 1229-1230 JEZS (pdf download).
  • Alcigir M E & Vural S A (2012) A case of odontogenic inflammatory dentigerous cyst in a calf: Macroscopic and histopathological findings. Bulg J Vet Med 15 (2), 137-141 ResearchGate.
  • Wapf P & Nuss K (2005) Dentigerous cyst in a calf. Vet Rec 156 (18), 580-582 PubMed.
  • Gardner D G (1993) Dentigerous cysts in animals. Oral Surg, Oral Med, Oral Pathol 75 (3), 348-352 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Jubb K V F, Kennedy P C & Palmer N (1985) Pathology of Domestic Animals. Vol 2. 3rd edn. Academic Press, USA.

Can’t find what you’re looking for?

We have an ever growing content library on Vetlexicon so if you ever find we haven't covered something that you need please fill in the form below and let us know!

 
 
 
 

To show you are not a Bot please can you enter the number showing adjacent to this field

 Security code