ISSN 2398-2993      

Anodontia and hypotrichosis

obovis
Contributor(s):

Ash Phipps

Paul Wood

Synonym(s): HID, HAD


Introduction

  • Cause: congenital hypotrichosis and incisor anodontia is a X-linked incomplete dominance inherited condition and congenital hypotrichosis and anodontia is a sex-linked inherited condition.
  • Signs: absence of incisor dentition and concurrent hypotrichosis (congenital hypotrichosis and incisor anodontia; HID) or complete absence of dentition with concurrent hypotrichosis (congenital hypotrichosis and anodontia; HAD).
  • Diagnosis: based on clinical presentation.
  • Treatment: supportive care to reduce risk of exposure and provision of short fiber roughage (chaff) and concentrate post weaning.
  • Prognosis: most affected animals are culled from the herd. However, if the calves are retained, the prognosis may be fair for calves experiencing only congenital hypotrichosis and anodontia to guarded for calves experiencing concurrent congenital abnormalities incompatible with life.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Congenital hypotrichosis and incisor anodontia is a X-linked incomplete dominance inherited condition and congenital hypotrichosis and anodontia is a sex-linked trait produced by an Xq-deletion and partial X inactivation in females and monogenic X-linked recessive trait in males.

Predisposing factors

Specific

  • The calf’s dam or sire carries the genetic condition.

Pathophysiology

  • Failure of the development of dentition.

Timecourse

  • Present at birth.

Epidemiology

  • Due to the mode of inheritance, it is possible to have a number of off-spring born with the condition if a single sire carrying the condition is used in the herd, or over time in a herd calves may be born with the condition who share family lines, eg affected calves may share a common grand-dam.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed Papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Barlund C S, Clark E G, Leeb T, Drögemüller C & Palmer C W (2007) Congenital hypotrichosis and partial anodontia in a crossbred beef calf. Can Vet J 48 (6), 612-614 PubMed.
  • Drögemüller C, Kuiper H, Peters M, Guionaud S, Distl O & Leeb T (2002) Congenital hypotrichosis with anodontia in cattle: a genetic, clinical and histological analysis. Vet Derm 13 (6), 307-313 PubMed.
  • Wijeratne W V, O'Toole D, Wood L & Harkness J W (1988) A genetic, pathological and virological study of congenital hypotrichosis and incisor anodontia in cattle. Vet Rec 122 (7), 149-152 PubMed.

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