Vagina: prolapse in Dogs (Canis) | Vetlexicon
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Vagina: prolapse

ISSN 2398-2942

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Introduction

  • Cause: most common with estral vaginal hypertrophy (first estrus and recurrence thereafter).
  • May occur post partum.
  • Signs: swollen vulva or fleshy mass protruding around vulva.
  • Diagnosis: signs.
  • Treatment: vaginal changes regress spontaneously provided no damage to prolapsed tissue.
  • May require submucosal resection before reduction/annular resection/OHE.
  • Prevention of recurrence: purse string suture/resection of dorsal wall of vulva.
  • Prognosis: OHE indicated at next anestrus in non-breeding bitch.

Presenting signs

  • In estrus (especially first).
  • Prolapse of vaginal tissue beyond vulva.
  • Post partum.
  • Dysuria/anuria - urethral patency compromised.

Breed/Species predisposition

Special risks

  • Mucosal trauma due to exposure.
  • Total urethral obstruction may require emergency management to prevent bladder rupture or renal damage.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • High estrogens during estrus cause hypertrophy of vaginal tissues.
  • Good evidence for inherited incidence.

Pathophysiology

  • During estrus vaginal tissue hypertrophies (especially tissue of vaginal floor immediately cranial to urethra) - a normal response to high estrogens.
  • In severe cases tissue prolapses beyond vulva.
  • Vaginal cases regress spontaneously in diestrus providing no tissue damage.
  • Severe cases may compromise urethral patency.
  • Most occur at first estrus and recur at subsequent cycles.
  • Prevents natural mating, AI possible.

Timecourse

  • Should resolve with diestrus.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • McNamara P S, Harvey H J, Dykes N (1997) Chronic vaginocervical prolapse with visceral incarceration in a dog. JAAHA 33 (6), 533-536 PubMed.
  • Manothaiudom K, Johnston S D (1991) Clinical approach to vaginal/vestibular masses in the bitch. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 21 (3), 509-521 PubMed.
  • Soderberg S F (1986) Vaginal disorders. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 16 (3), 543-559 PubMed.
  • Robinson R W (1978) Intestinal prolapse through the vagina in a Beagle. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 73 (11), 1412-1413 PubMed.