Sacrocaudal dysgenesis in Dogs (Canis) | Vetlexicon
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Sacrocaudal dysgenesis

ISSN 2398-2942

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Synonym(s): Caudal dysgenesis; sacrococcygeal dysgenesis

Introduction

  • Cause: congenital abnormality in dogs.
  • Signs: paraplegia, incontinence, abnormal gait.
  • Diagnosis: signs, radiography.
  • Treatment: symptomatic.
  • Prognosis: poor.

Presenting signs

  • Signs noticeable shortly after birth.
  • Abnormal gait.
  • Urinary incontinence.
  • Fecal incontinence or constipation

Age predisposition

  • Young puppies shortly after birth.

Breed/Species predisposition

  • Several breeds reported; especially English Bulldog Bulldog.

Cost considerations

  • Usually inexpensive but costs may increase with radiography/myelography, or other specialized imaging techniques (MRI, CT).

Pathogenesis

Pathophysiology

  • The disorder is associated with varying degrees of agenesis/aplasia (absence of formation) or dysgenesis/dysplasia (defective development) of caudal lumbar, sacral and caudal (coccygeal) vertebrae -> spina bifida Spina bifida or abnormalities of terminal spinal cord -> neurological deficits, such as paraparesis and paraplegia.
  • May also be associated with other developmental abnormalities:
    • Myelodysplasia Spine: dysraphism.
    • Meningo(myelo)cele.
    • Duplication of spinal cord.
    • Clefting of spinal cord.
    • Hydrosyringomyelia.
    • Subcutaneous cyst formation.
    • Multiple thoracic vertebrae.
    • Hydrocephalus Hydrocephalus.
  • As a consequence of the meningeal attachment in the meningomyelocele, abnormal tension may be exerted on the spinal cord. This has been termed 'tethered cord syndrome'. It usually occurs at the time of rapid growth. The degree of spinal cord dysfunction in tethered cord syndrome appears to be related to both the force and duration of traction.

Timecourse

  • Signs apparent soon after birth.
  • May be progressive or static.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Dickele G et al (1996) Sacral dysgenesis in a Pekinese resembling the Manx cat anomaly. Prat Med Chir Anim 31 (2), 149-152 VetMedResource.
  • Ruberte J et al (1995) Malformations of the vertebral bodies and the ribs associated to spinal dysraphism without spina bifida in a Pekingese dog. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 42 (5), 307-313 PubMed.
  • Fingeroth J M et al (1989) Neuroradiographic diagnosis and surgical repair of tethered cord syndrome in an English bulldog with spina bifida and myeloschisis. J Am Vet Med Assoc 194 (9), 1300-1302 PubMed.
  • Wilson J W et al (1979) Spina bifida in the dog. Vet Pathol 16 (2), 165-179 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Braund K G (2002)Developmental Disorders.InClinical Neurology in Small Animals - Localization, Diagnosis and Treatment.Ed K G Braund.Ithaca: International Veterinary Information Service. Document no B0217.0202.