Carpus: hyperextension in Dogs (Canis) | Vetlexicon
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Carpus: hyperextension

ISSN 2398-2942

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Introduction

  • Common injury.
  • Cause: fall from a height, or during exercise.
  • Hyperextension may occur secondarily to polyarthropathy.
  • Signs: a) acute injury - pain, non-weight-bearing lameness, soft tissue swelling; b) chronic or degenerative injuries - often relatively painless, abnormal hyperextended joint posture when weight-bearing.
  • Diagnosis: hyperextended stance, imaging to rule out other causes.
  • Treatment: arthrodesis - panarthrodesis if antebrachiocarpal joint affected.
  • Prognosis: guarded without treatment.

Presenting signs

Acute
  • Acute onset, non-weight-bearing forelimb lameness.
  • Pain.
  • Swelling often severe and extensive initially.
  • Increased extension at the carpus l Carpus: hyperextension.

Chronic

Acute presentation

  • Acute onset, non-weight-bearing forelimb lameness.
  • Pain and swelling.
  • Joint instability.

Cost considerations

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Trauma, eg fall from height.
  • Spontaneously at work or during exercise.
  • Spontaneous progressive carpal hyperextension in Collie breeds.
  • Associated with inflammatory polyarthropathy Arthritis: polyarthritis - idiopathic.

Pathophysiology

  • Carpal joint hyperextension caused by disruption of palmar soft tissue supporting elements, resulting in subluxation or luxation of carpal joint (any articulation(s)).
Acute traumatic
  • Disruption of palmar soft tissue supporting elements of carpus cause subluxation or luxation of joint at any articulation(s).
Inflammatory polyarthropathy
  • Insidious onset joint laxity.

Degenerative

  • Spontaneous carpal hyperextension often bilateral in collie breeds without polyarthropathy. Plantar ligaments may be also affected.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Milgram J, Milshtein T, Meiner Y (2012) The role of the antebrachiocarpal ligaments in the prevention of hyperextension of the antebrachiocarpal joint. Vet Surg 41 (2), 191-199 PubMed.
  • Shires P K, Hulse D A, Kearney M T (1985) Carpal hyperextension in two-month-old pups. JAVMA 186 (1), 49-52 PubMed.