Acupuncture: needle insertion in Dogs (Canis) | Vetlexicon
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Acupuncture: needle insertion

ISSN 2398-2942

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Introduction

  • The insertion of needles at specified points on defined meridian lines along the body may:
    • Stimulate nerves → inhibiting the transmission of pain impulses along them.
    • Stimulate nerves → releasing natural endorphins.
    • Cause an interaction between nerves → releasing factors from the pituitary gland → releasing natural endorphins.
    • Affect electrical activity in the body → analgesia.

Uses

Advantages

  • Non-invasive.

Disadvantages



Contraindications
  • Do not place needles in areas where there is an active infection.
  • Do not place needles in known cancerous tissue.
  • Avoid major blood vessels.
  • Avoid use of certain points in pregnancy.
  • Avoid placing needles through contaminated/dirty hair or skin.

Technical problems

  • Requires specialist knowledge of the location of meridians on the animal's body and corresponding acupuncture points.

Alternative techniques

  • Laser (advantages of no pain - useful in treating nervous or lively animals such as cats).
  • Acupressure - using the tip of a finger, working the points in a circular fashion while applying pressure.
  • Injecting vitamin B12.
  • Insertion of gold beads into acupuncture points.
  • Electro-acupuncture (passing of electrical currents down the needles).
  • Burning mugwort at the end of the needle (moxibustion). This warms the needle and enhances stimulation.

Time required

Preparation

  • 5-10 min.

Procedure

  • Needles should be left in place for a minimum of 10 min.

Decision taking

Criteria for choosing test

  • Suitable patient.
  • Sufficient time (examination, needle insertion, treatment, needle removal). Minimum 20 min.
  • Suitable condition.
  • Provision for follow up treatment.
  • Requires owner compliance to follow through series of treatments. (Improvement can be slow in some animals.)

Requirements

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Preparation

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Technique

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bossut D F (1996) Veterinary clinical applications of acupuncture. J Altern Complement Med (1), 65-69 PubMed.
  • Panzer R B & Chrisman C L (1994) An auricular acupuncture treatment for idiopathic canine epilepsy - a preliminary report. Am J Chin Med 22 (1), 11-7 PubMed.
  • Yu C, Zhang K, Lu G et al (1994) Characteristics of acupuncture meridians and acupoints in animals. Rev Sci Tech 13 (3), 927-933 PubMed.
  • Janssens L A (1993) The role of acupuncture in analgesia. Tijdschr Diergeneeskd 118 (Suppl 1), 11S-12S PubMed.
  • Altman S (1992) Techniques and instrumentation. Probl Vet Med (1), 66-87 VetMedResource.
  • Altman S (1992) The incorporation of acupuncture into a small animal practice. Probl Vet Med (1), 223-233 PubMed.
  • Dill S G (1992) Acupuncture for gastrointestinal disorders. Probl Vet Med (1), 144-154 PubMed.
  • Durkes T E (1992) Gold bead implants. Probl Vet Med (1), 207-211 PubMed.
  • Hwang Y C (1992) Anatomy and classification of acupoints. Probl Vet Med (1), 12-15 PubMed.
  • Hwang Y C (1992) Acupuncture atlas. Probl Vet Med (1), 16-33 PubMed.
  • Jaggar D (1992) History and basic introduction to veterinary acupuncture. Probl Vet Med (1), 1-11 PubMed.
  • Janssens L A A (1992) Acupuncture for the treatment of thoracolumbar and cervical disk disease in the dog. Probl Vet Med (1), 107-116 VetMedResource.
  • Janssens L A (1992) Trigger point therapy. Probl Vet Med (1), 117-124 PubMed.
  • Klide A M (1992) Acupuncture Analgesia. Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract 22 (2), 374-379 PubMed.
  • Limehouse J B (1992) Oriental concepts of acupuncture. Probl Vet Med (1), 53-65 PubMed.
  • Lin J H & Panzer R (1992) Acupuncture for reproductive disorders. Probl Vet Med (1), 155-161 PubMed.
  • Rogers P A, Schoen A M & Limehouse J (1992) Acupuncture for immune-mediated disorders. Literature review and clinical applications. Probl Vet Med (1), 162-193 PubMed.
  • Schoen A M (1992) Acupuncture for musculoskeletal disorders. Probl Vet Med (1), 88-97 PubMed.
  • Schwartz C (1992) Chronic respiratory conditions and acupuncture therapy. Probl Vet Med (1) 136-143 PubMed.
  • Smith F W Jr (1992) Neurophysiologic basis of acupuncture. Probl Vet Med (1), 34-52 PubMed.
  • Smith F W Jr (1992) Acupuncture for cardiovascular disorders. Probl Vet Med (1), 125-131 PubMed.
  • Janssens L A (1991) Acupuncture in thoracolumbar disc disease. J S Afr Vet Assoc 62 (1), 2 PubMed.
  • Robinson C (1990) Getting started in acupuncture. Aust Vet J 67 (10), N423 PubMed.
  • Janssens L A & Rogers P A M (1989) Acupuncture versus surgery in canine thoracolumbar disk disease. Vet Rec 124 (11), 283 VetMedResource.
  • van Niekerk J & Eckersley N (1988) The use of acupuncture in canine epilepsy. J S Afr Vet Assoc 59 (1), 5 PubMed.
  • Klide A M, Farnbach G C & Gallagher S M (1987) Acupuncture therapy for the treatment of intractable, idiopathic epilepsy in dogs. Acupunct Electrother Res 12 (1), 71-74 PubMed.
  • Schoen A M, Janssens L & Rogers P A (1986) Veterinary acupuncture. Semin Vet Med Surg (Small Anim) (3), 224-229 PubMed.
  • Williams B M (1986) Acupuncture treatment of paralysis. Vet Rec 119 (13), 340 PubMed.
  • Craige J E (1985) Acupuncture for fleabite allergic dermatitis. JAVMA 187 (2), 127 PubMed.
  • Altman S (1981) Clinical use of veterinary acupuncture. Vet Med Small Anim Clin 76 (9), 1307-1312 PubMed.
  • Wright M & McGrath C J (1981) Physiologic and analgesic effects of acupuncture in the dog. JAVMA 178 (5), 502-507 PubMed.
  • Janssens L, Altman S & Rogers P A (1979) Respiratory and cardiac arrest under general anaesthesia - treatment by acupuncture of the nasal philtrum. Vet Rec 105 (12), 273-276 PubMed.
  • Rogers P A (1978) Veterinary acupuncture. Vet Rec 102 (17), 387 PubMed.
  • Altman S (1977) Acupuncture - taking a closer look. Mod Vet Pract 58 (12), 1003-1006 PubMed.
  • Freeman A (1974) Veterinary acupuncture. J Am Vet Med Assoc 164 (5), 446-448 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Schoen & Wynn (1997)Complementary and Alternative Veterinary Medicine.Mosby.
  • Schoen A (1994)Veterinary Acupuncture. Ancient Art to Modern Medicine.Mosby.
  • Maciocia G (1989)The Foundations of Chinese Medicine.Churchill Livingstone.
  • Kaputchuk T J (1983)Chinese Medicine - The Web That Has No Weaver.Rider.

Organisation(s)

  • The Secretary,The Association of British Veterinary Acupuncturists (ABVA), East Park Cottage, Handcross, Haywards Heath, West Sussex, RH17 6BD, UK.