Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE) in Dogs (Canis) | Vetlexicon
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Gluten-sensitive enteropathy (GSE)

ISSN 2398-2942


Synonym(s): Wheat-sensitive enteropathy, GSE

Introduction

  • Cause: sensitivity to dietary gluten, affecting young dogs, especially Irish Setter.
  • Signs: poor growth and weight gain or weight loss with or without chronic diarrhea.
  • Diagnosis: biopsies show partial villous atrophy with some lymphocytic infiltration of lamina propria, intra-epithelial lymphocytes (IELs).
  • Treatment: gluten-free diet.
  • Prognosis: good if dietary control is strict.

Presenting signs

  • Poor weight gain, weight loss.

Age predisposition

  • <2 years (usually 4 to 7 months of age).

Breed/Species predisposition

  • Irish Setter Irish Setter (may be hereditary).
  • May affect other breeds - but unconfirmed at present.

Cost considerations

  • Once diagnosis made treatment is by dietary control.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Dietary gluten.
  • Heritable disease in the Irish Setter.

Pathophysiology

  • Not well understood:
    • Gluten is one of the proteins in wheat, with gliadins being the toxic component within gluten. Similar proline-rich proteins are found in barley, rye and oats, and gluten-sensitivity usually imparts sensitivity to these cereals, but not to rice or maize (corn).
    • In humans with gluten-sensitive enteropathy (celiac disease), autoantibodies to tissue transglutaminase (tTg) are a hallmark. The antibodies are believed to cross-react with gliadins. tTg antibodies have been demonstrated gluten-sensitive dyskinesia in Border terriers Paroxysmal dyskinesia which respond to a gluten-free diet. Whilst tTg IgA antibodies have been demonstrated in canine chronic enteropathy, they have not yet been demonstrated in setters with GSE due the rarity of affected setters following a selective breeding program.
    • Dietary gluten → toxic or immunologic insult → partial villous atrophy and lymphocytic infiltration of lamina propria especially proximal small intestine.
    • Increased intestinal permeability after gluten challenge in affected dogs.

Timecourse

  • Upon exposure to dietary gluten.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Jergen, A E & Heilmann R M (2022) Canine chronic enteropathy-Current state-of-the-art and emerging concepts. Front Vet Sci 9, 923013 PubMed DOI: 10.3389/fvets.2022.923013.
  • Matsumoto I, Uchida K et al (2018) IgA Antibodies against gliadin and tissue transglutaminase in dogs with chronic enteritis and intestinal T-cell lymphoma. Vet Pathol 55(1), 98-107 PubMed DOI: 10.1177/0300985817690212.
  • Lowrie M, Garden O A et al (2015) The clinical and serological effect of a gluten-free diet in Border terriers with Epileptoid Cramping Syndrome. J Vet Intern Med 29(6) 1564-1568 https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.13643.
  • Garden O A, Pidduck H et al (2000) Inheritance of gluten-sensitive enteropathy in Irish Setters. Am J Vet Res 61 (4), 462-468 PubMed.
  • Garden O A et al (1998) Intestinal permeability of Irish setter puppies challenged with a controlled oral dose of gluten. Res Vet Sci 65 (1), 23-28 PubMed.