Radiography: carpus and forefoot in Dogs (Canis) | Vetlexicon
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Radiography: carpus and forefoot

ISSN 2398-2942


Introduction

  • Use highest resolution cassette available for CR system for orthopedic imaging.
  • A grid is not required.
  • In UK, kV should not exceed about 50.
  • Soft tissues should be included.
  • General anesthesia or sedation is required.
  • The film should be correctly exposed and be free from movement blur and artefact.
  • The anatomical marker must be clearly visible.
    • If manual processing is used then the patient’s identification, the date, and the name of the hospital or practice must also be visible.

Uses

  • Fracture Carpus fracture - radiograph CrCd.
  • Dislocation.
  • Neoplasia: bony Bone: neoplasia , or soft tissue invading bone Synovial cell sarcoma.
  • Carpal valgus/varus but full length radius and ulna views including the carpus may be preferable.
  • Foreign bodies.
  • Arthritis Carpus erosive arthritis - radiograph  CrCd.
  • Infection.

Advantages

  • Non-invasive.
  • Easily performed clinical practice.

Time required

Preparation

  • Dependent upon the method of chemical restraint, (GA or sedation).

Procedure

  • 10-15 min or longer, dependent upon skill of radiographer.

Decision taking

Criteria for choosing test

Is the examination appropriate?
  • Can you make the diagnosis without it?
  • Can it tell you what you want to know?
  • Will your management be affected by the radiological findings?

Choosing the right projections

Lateral

  • Standard projection Radiographic positioning video: distal limb - spread toe view.
  • Important for the carpus when looking for fractures or dislocation.
  • Shows soft tissue swelling/joint effusion.
  • Vital for localizing radio-opaque foreign bodies in the foot.
  • Can show fractures and displacement of metacarpals and phalanges, but obliques may be more useful.

Dorsopalmar

  • Standard projection.
  • More useful than the lateral in the foot, as metacarpals and phalanges are not overlying each other.
  • Important in the carpus for fractures and dislocations.
  • Shows joint effusion/soft tissue swelling.
  • Vital to have two views at right angles to localize radio-opaque foreign bodies and characterize fractures.

Dorsolateral-palmaromedial oblique/dorsomedial-palmarolateral oblique

  • Supplementary views.
  • Can be important in the carpus for more complete evaluation of complex joints.
  • Can be very useful in the foot for showing metacarpals and phalanges in a different plane from the dorsopalmar, but without as much overlapping as in the lateral.

Stressed views of the carpus - forced abduction or adduction, forced flexion or extension

  • Supplementary views.
  • Useful for confirming or assessing extent of carpal instability. Make sure this is undertaken without compromising radiation safety and be sure that you are not going to make the condition of the patient worse.

Requirements

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Technique

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Aftercare

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Refereed papers

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Bradley K (2005) Radiography and radiology of the carpus and hock. UK Vet 10 (5), 39-42.