Skin: histiocytoma in Dogs (Canis) | Vetlexicon
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Skin: histiocytoma

ISSN 2398-2942


Introduction

  • Benign tumor of the skin, common in young dogs, rare in other species.
  • Originates from Langerhans cells.
  • Accounts for up to 14% of all skin tumors in dogs. Multiple histiocytomas (i.e. cutaneous Langerhans cell histiocytosis Reactive (systemic and cutaneous) histiocytosis) occurs in <1% of cases.
  • Signs: usually solitary, occasionally multiple. There is an extremely rare form which is malignant Canine malignant histiocytic sarcoma complex.
  • Diagnosis: history, clinical signs, cytopathology.
  • Treatment: surgical excision.
  • Prognosis: excellent; if incomplete resection, can recur.

Presenting signs

  • Small mass on skin:
    • Pink.
    • Intradermal.
    • Firm.
    • Hairless (complete or partial alopecia).
    • Usually solitary but can be multiple.
  • Can be fast growing, ulcerative indicative of regression.
  • Most 1-2 cm diameter (range 0.5-4 cm).
  • 'Button-like' appearance/dome shaped.

Geographic incidence

  • No specific geographic distribution.

Age predisposition

  • Mainly young dogs <3 years old.
  • Can still occur rarely in older dogs
  • 89% of histopathological submission for neoplasia of dogs <1 year old.

Breed/Species predisposition

Cost considerations

  • Usually self-limiting, occasionally surgically removed before spontaneous regression occurs.

Pathogenesis

Etiology

  • Unknown.

Specific

  • Age - usually young dogs <2 years of age.

Pathophysiology

  • Benign tumor arising from tissue macrophages (Langerhans cells) in skin.
  • Accounts for 3-14% of all canine skin tumors, phenotypically and histologically distinct from cutaneous and systemic histiocytosis Reactive (systemic and cutaneous) histiocytosis), which is a reactive inflammatory process.
  • Proliferation of tissue histiocytes, usually benign, often single nodule, but can be multiple.
  • Many regress spontaneously, and show lymphocytic infiltrate as they regress.
  • During period of regression, often ulcerate.
  • In a small percentage of cases, seen in young dogs, they have shown malignant behavior with metastatic disease Canine malignant histiocytic sarcoma complex.
  • Histiocytic proliferative dermatitis is a related condition where multiple lesions are present, most frequently seen in young Golden Retrievers; described as multiple erythematous dermal or subcutaneous plaques or nodules, which wax and wane with time.

Timecourse

  • Weeks to months.
  • Can grow rapidly (1-4 weeks), generally regress within 1-2 months.

Diagnosis

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Treatment

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Prevention

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Outcomes

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Further Reading

Publications

Peer reviewed resources

  • Recent references from PubMed and VetMedResource.
  • Faller M, Lamm C, Affolter V K, et al (2016) Retrospective characterisation of solitary cutaneous histiocytoma with lymph node metastasis in eight dogs JSAP 57 (10), 548-552 PubMed.
  • Maina E, Colombo S & Stefanello D (2014) Multiple cutaneous histiocytomas treated with lomustine in a dog Vet Derm 25 (6), 559-562 PubMed.
  •  Kipar A, Baumgärter W, Kremmer E et al (1998) Expression of major histocompatability complex class II antigen in neoplastic cells of canine cutaneous histiocytoma. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 62 (1), 1-13 PubMed.
  • Moore P F, Schrenzel M D, Affolter V K, et al (1996) Canine cutaneous histiocytoma is an epridermatrophic Langerhans cell histiocytosis that expresses CD1 and specific beta 2-integrin molecules. Am J Pathol 148 (5), 1699-1708 PubMed.
  • Withrow S J & MacEwen E G (1996) Small Animal Clinical Oncology. Small Anim Clin Oncol 2, 592 VetMedResource.
  • Marchal T, Dezutter-Dambuyant C, Fournal C, et al (1995) Immunophenotypic and ultrastructural evidence of the Langerhans cell origin of the canine cutaneous histiocytoma. Acta Anat (Basel) 153 (3), 189-202 PubMed.
  • Marchal T, Dezutter-Dambuyant C, Fournal C et al (1995) Electromicroscopic study of canine cutaneous histiocytoma - a benign Langerhans cell tumour. Adv Exp Med Biol 378, 549-551 PubMed.
  • Bender W M & Muller G H (1989) Multiple, resolving, cutaneous histiocytoma in a dog. JAVMA 194 (4), 535-577 PubMed.

Other sources of information

  • Withrow S J & MacEwen E G (2020) Small Animal Clinical Oncology. 6th edn. W B Saunders, USA.
  • UCDavis Veterinary Medicine (online). Overview of Histiocytosis Diseases - DVM Version. Website: www.histiocytosis.ucdavis.edu.